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【青岛翻译第610期】状语的修饰问题

作者:青岛语桥翻译公司小编

  在汉语中,状语的位置相对来说比较固定。但在英语中,状语的位置比较灵活。汉译 英时应摆脱汉语结构的影响,灵活地安排状语位置,使修饰、管辖关系变得更清楚,使多个状语的位置安排得更合理。

  在汉语中,特别是在法规文件中,会出现一些长句,其英译文自然也很长。在长句中比较容易产生状语修饰关系不清的现象,主要有以下两种问题:按通常的习惯写法,状语可 会离被修饰对象太远,从而导致读者看不清两者之间的关系。状语本应修饰两个对象,但 由于位置安排不妥,事实上只能修饰一个对象。以下介绍处理这两个问题的办法。

  一、缩短状语与被修饰对象之间的距离

  1.马克思主义运用历史唯物主义提示了人类社会发展的规律

  Marxism has uncovered the law governing the development of human society by using historical materialism.

  Using historical materialism, Marxism has uncovered the laws governing the development of human society.

  译文中的 by using 可能修饰 societydevelopmentgoverninglawIt has uncovered 中的任何个。但根据原中文,by using应修饰距其最远的It has uncovered。译文二将Using historical materialism移前,与it靠近,修饰关系便显得比较清楚了。

  2.对供方提供或者传授的专有技术和有关技术资料,受方应当按照合同约定的范围和 期限承担保密义务。

  A recipient shall undertake the obligation to keep confidential the proprietary technology and related technical information provided or imparted by the supplier in accordance with the scope and duration agreed on in the contract.

  A recipient shall undertake the obligation to keep confidential, in accordance with the scope and duration agreed on in the contract, the proprietary technology and related technical information provided or imparted by the supplier.

  在译文一中,in accordance with应修饰远处的keep confidential但由于两者之间的距离过长,读者可能误以为in accordance with修饰两者之间的provided or imparted。译文二使用插入 法,把 in accordance with 插入在 keep confidential……the proprietary technology 也即使之靠近keep confidential。这样,修饰关系便没有歧义了。

  二、是否修饰两个对象

  在英语长句中为了使修饰关系清楚无误,可采用插入法把状语位置移前。但是如果该状语应修饰两个动词,则应注意避免因插入不当而导致只能修饰一个动词的错误结构。

  3.加强依法治税,强化税收征管,严厉打击偷税漏税。

  We should levy taxes according to law, tighten tax collection and management, and severely fight tax evasion and tax fraud.

  在原中文中,“依法”应管住“治税”、“强化税收”、“打击偷税漏税”这三件事。但在以上译文中according to law只能管住levy taxes,管不住另外两件事,也即办另两件事时小一定要依法办事。译者应移动状according to law,使修饰关系更合理。请看两种译文:

  We should, according to law, levy taxes, tighten tax collection and management, and severely fight tax evasion and tax fraud.

We should levy taxes, tighten tax collection and management, and severely fight tax evasion and tax fraud, (all) according to law.

  4.要依法严厉打击各种犯罪活动,坚决扫除黄赌毒等社会丑恶现象。

  We must crack down on all kinds of crime according to law and cradicate social evils such as pornography, gambling and drug abuse and trafficking.

  此例与前一例相似,应移动according to law的位置,使之能修饰crack downeradicate 两者:We must, according to law, crack down...and eradicate…/We must crack down... and eradicate…according to law.

  5.开发区根据需要也可兴建国际贸易、国际金融、外事活动场所和举办旅游、提供寓所等服务性项

  The development zone may also build, in accordance with requirements, premises for conducting international trade, finance and other activities in connection with foreign affairs as well as render such services as conducting tourism and providing residences.

  The development zone may, in accordance with requirements, also build premises for conducting international trade, finance and other activities in connection with foreign affairs as well as render such services as conducting tourism and providing residences.

  译文in accordance with…插入在buildpremises之间,只能修饰build,不能修饰 后面的动render。译文二将in accordance with…插入在mayalso build之间,可同时修饰 build brender两者。另一解决办法是将状语in accordance with…转到句末,但缺点是离前面动词build太远。

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